PARE Content Areas

Area 1.0 Medication Safety and the Practice of Pharmacy 50% (105 items)

1.1 Safe and Effective Preparation and Dispensing of Medications

  • 1.1.1 extemporaneous compounding/parenteral/enteral including calculations, sterile admixture techniques, USP <797>, stability and sterility testing and dating, clean room requirements, infusion devices, and catheters
  • 1.1.2 preparation, dispensing, distribution, and disposal of medications and devices including appropriate labeling, storage, packaging, and handling
  • 1.1.3 distribution systems associated with all types of practice settings
  • 1.1.4 role of automation and technology in workload efficiency and patient safety

1.2 Prevention of Medication Errors

  • 1.2.1 practice management tools needed to assess and address change, improve quality, and optimize patient services
  • 1.2.2 identification and prevention of medication errors within the dispensing and distribution system
  • 1.2.3 medication error reduction programs
  • 1.2.4 medication safety: causes of errors, strategies for reducing errors

1.3 Continuous Quality Improvement

  • 1.3.1 fundamentals and application of continuous quality improvement programs/methods 

Area 2.0 Professional Ethics/Pharmacist Judgment 25%
(52-53 items)

2.1 Professional Ethics

  • 2.1.1 ethical principles

2.2 Decisions/Actions Affecting Patient Care

  • 2.2.1 ethical issues in delivery of patient-centered care/clinical research

2.3 Code of Ethics, Professional Behavior

  • 2.3.1 dealing with ethical dilemmas
  • 2.3.2 conflicts of interest
  • 2.3.3 ethical issues in teamwork

Area 3.0 Clinical Pharmacy Practice 25% (52-53 items)

3.1 Patient Assessment, Clinical Pharmacology, Therapeutics

  • 3.1.1 pharmacotherapy: selection of drug products, dosing, routes of administration, disease state management
  • 3.1.2 patient assessment triage and referral skills: identify and assess the patient's current health status, health problems, need for treatment and/or referral, and desired therapeutic outcomes
  • 3.1.3 diagnostic tests in the diagnosis of various disease states, knowledge of the basis for common clinical laboratory values and diagnostic tests, and the influences of common disease states
  • 3.1.4 patient monitoring: drug monitoring for positive and negative outcomes, methods of outcome monitoring and assessment techniques, drug monitoring for positive/negative outcomes in special-population patients, and pharmaceutical care plans
  • 3.1.5 problem identification and resolution (eg, dosage, frequency, dosage form, interactions, adverse drug reactions, indication, contraindication, safety, efficacy, noncompliance, abuse)

3.2 Promotion of Wellness and Public Health

  • 3.2.1 disease prevention and monitoring
  • 3.2.2 infection control (pharmacist intervention, recommendations)
  • 3.2.3 promotion of wellness (nutrition, non-pharmacologic therapies, lifestyle)

3.3 Drug Information

  • 3.3.1 fundamentals and application of drug information skills for the delivery of care (identifying and using resources, accessing references, etc.)